What is coronavirus- and what is the mortality rate?

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Covid-1 9 essential guidebook: can it be caught on public transport, how is it different from the flu, and how sick will I get?

What do we know about the virus now ?

The Covid-1 9 virus is a member of the coronavirus household that built the jump from animals to humen late last year. Unusually for a virus that has built the jumping from one species to another, it appears to transmit effectively in humen. The virus also appears to have a higher mortality rate than common maladies such as seasonal influenza. The combining of coronavirus’s ability to spread and cause serious illness has prompted many countries, including the UK, to introduce or plan extensive public health measures aimed at containing and restriction the impact of the epidemic.

How can I stop myself and others from get infected ?

Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds and do this often, including when you get home or into work. Use hand sanitiser gel if soap and water are not available. Avoid touching your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or the felon of your elbow( not your hand) and put use tissues straight in the bin. Avoid close contact with people who are showing possible symptoms. Follow NHS guidance on self-isolation and travel.

How can you tell the difference between influenza and Covid-1 9 ?

The coronavirus outbreak reach amid influenza season in the northern hemisphere and even doctors can struggle to distinguish between the two- the overlap in symptoms probably contributed to slow detection of community infections in some countries, including Italy.

Typical flu symptoms, which normally come on rapidly, include a high fever, sore throat, muscle aches, headaches, chills, runny or stuffy nose, fatigue and, more occasionally, vomiting and diarrhoea. Doctors are still working to understand the full scope of symptoms and severity for Covid-1 9, but early studies of patients taken to hospital determined nearly all of them developed a fever and dry cough, and many had fatigue and muscle aches. Pneumonia( lung infection) is common in coronavirus patients, even outside the most severe cases, and this can lead to breathing difficulties. A runny nose and sore throat are far less common, reported by simply 5 % of patients. The only real verification of having Covid-1 9 is taking a test though.

What should I do if I have symptoms?

In the UK, the NHS advice is now that anyone with symptoms should stay at home for at least 7 days . If you live with other people, they should stay at home for at least 14 days , to avoid spreading the infection outside the home. This applies to everyone, regardless of whether they have travelled abroad.

You should look on the dedicated coronavirus NHS 111 website for datum. If you get worse or your symptoms last longer than seven days, you should call NHS 111. People will no longer be tested for the virus unless they are in hospital.

Many countries have imposed travel prohibitions and lockdown conditions in order to try and halt the spread of the virus. You should check with your local authorities for the latest advice on trying medical assistance .

If I get coronavirus, how sick will I get ?

A big study in China found that about 80% of corroborated instances had fairly mild symptoms( defined as no significant infection in the lungs ). About 15% had severe symptoms that caused significant shortness of breath, low blood oxygen or other lung problems, and fewer than 5% of cases were critical, featuring respiratory failure, septic shock or multiple organ problems. However, it is possible that a larger number of very mild occurrences are going under the radar, and so this breakdown in severity could change over time as wider screening takes place. Older people and those with respiratory problems, heart disease or diabetes are at greater risk.

What is the mortality rate of the new coronavirus ?

It is probably about or a little less than 1 %. Much higher figures have been flying about, but the UK’s chief medical officer, Chris Whitty, is one of those who believes it will prove to be 1% or lower. The World Health Organization’s director general, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, talked of 3.4%, but his figure was calculated by dividing the number of deaths by the number of officially confirmed instances. We know there are many more mild instances that do not get to hospital and are not being counted, which would bring the mortality rate significantly down.

Deaths are highest in the elderly, with very low rates among younger people, although medical staff who treat patients and get exposed to a lot of virus are thought to be more at risk. But even among the over-8 0s, 90% will recover.

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Can you get infected on modes of public transport ?

Most infections happen in families, where people live at close quarters. You need to be within one to two metres of somebody to be infected by viral-loaded water droplets from their coughs or when they are speaking. That is less likely on public transport. However, it would be possible to pick up the virus on your hands from a surface that somebody with the infection had touched. The virus can linger for 48 hours or even perhaps 72 hours on a hard surface, such as the hand rail in the tube- though less time on a soft surface. That is why the advice is to wash your hands regularly and avoid touching your face, to prevent the virus getting into your nose, mouth or eyes.

Is there a remedy for Covid-1 9 ?

Not at the moment, but medications that are known to work against some viruses are being trialled in China, where there are thousands of patients, and new trials are starting in the US and non-eu countries. Large numbers are needed to find out whether they work in a few people or a lot of people or nobody at all. The most hopeful are Kaletra, which is a combination of two anti-HIV medications, and remdesivir, which was tried but failed in Ebola patients in west Africa in 2013 and 2016. Some Chinese physicians are also trying chloroquine, an antimalarial drug, which is off-patent, therefore cheap and highly available, and would be very helpful in low-income countries. The first results are expected in mid-March and should indicate if the drugs will at least help those who are most severely ill. A miracle cure is not expected.

When will we get a vaccine ?

Efforts to develop an effective vaccine for Covid-1 9 have been quick compared with historical epidemics, such as Ebola. A number of teams are already testing vaccine candidates in animals and preparing to carry out small trials in people. The US company, Moderna Therapeutics, is already recruiting and hopes to enrol 45 volunteers between 18 and 55 and launching the trial imminently. Phase one trials like this look at whether the inoculation triggers an immune response and whether the dedicated dosage causes adverse effects and could be completed quite quickly. However, the subsequent stages, which will involve thousands of volunteers and will seem more closely at efficacy, will take longer and obtaining a commercially available vaccine within a year would be extremely quick. The government’s chief scientific adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, said he did not suppose a running inoculation to protect people from the coronavirus would be produced in time for the current outbreak, but that a timeframe of a year or 18 months ” was not unreasonable to assume “.

Read more: www.theguardian.com

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