As if years of war, terrorism and oppression werent harrowing enough for the person or persons of Syria, the country is experiencing an epidemic of a so-called flesh-eating illnes. Outbreaks of the disease, known as leishmaniasis, have been reported repeatedly over the past year.
More recently, the head of the Kurdish Red Crescent was reported to have said the problem was become worse by the actions of Islamic State leaving bodies to rot in the streets. But while leishmaniasis is a serious problem in Syria, this picture of a flesh-eating illnes spread by terrorists isnt wholly accurate.
What is leishmaniasis ?
Leishmaniasis has actually been endemic to Syria for centuries and was once commonly known as Aleppo evil. This cutaneous( skin-affecting) sort of the disease isnt strictly flesh eating, although another form may be in Brazil and some other parts of South America can be. It is caused by the Leishmania parasite, which is be borne by sandflies. If youre bitten by a fly, the parasites can enter your blood and invade the macrophage immune cells that normally kill glitches, causing causing horrible open sores close to the bite.
In other places, in particular India, another form of the parasite spreads to the liver and spleen and causes death as those vital visceral organs break down. In the Brazilian sort, the parasites cause macrophages to migrate to the mucosal surfaces around the mouth and nose. Here the immune system attacks the parasites but objective up causing substantial damage to surrounding tissue, eating away the flesh in these areas, leading to gross disfigurements.
Sandflies actually dont eat rotting bodies on the street, they suck blood from living people, so the reports about Islamic State spreading the disease arent strictly true. However, the political events in Syria including the rise of Islamic State have caused the collapse of the countrys health systems, along with every other part of the social structure there. So unavoidably, the disease has been spreading more widely.
Can it be treated ?
Today, around 1.3 m people are infected with leishmaniasis every year across the tropics and sub-tropics. Most sufferers have the cutaneous sort, as may be in Syria, while the visceral sort can be fatal. But because it is typically observed among the worlds poorest people, it receives little attention in terms of developing new medications or vaccines and is considered a neglected tropical illnes.
However, therapies do exist and in a functioning health system medications can be used to remedy the disease. Scientists are still debating the best treatment for the cutaneous illnes but at present we have four different medications that can be used. The best medication for visceral leishmaniasis is called amphotericin B and when injected it is very efficient at curing the disease. Just a few injections of the narcotic can be enough to remedy the disease, but it does carry the risk of side effects such as fever, headaches and vomiting.
Older medications have to be given for several weeks to depict an effect. For example, when TV adventurer Ben Fogle caught the cutaneous illnes in Peru a few years ago he was treated with a rather toxic antimony-based narcotic, which made him feel very ill and lose large amounts of weight but eventually cured him.
Could it spread more widely ?
In addition to the increasing incidence of the disease in Syria itself, some refugees fleeing the country will carry parasites with them. This could be used by those who resist taking in refugees by suggesting they will spread illnes. But countries obtaining refugees need not worry about its introduction.
It is sandflies , not people, that transmit the disease and though they are observed in all regions of the tropics and subtropics, they cant survive in colder climates. The visceral sort of leishmaniasis is already endemic in parts of southern Europe including Spain, Italy and the south of France, but the disease tends to only manifest itself in people with weak immune systems such as those infected with HIV. This highlights the fact that people in prosperous regions where nutrition and general health are good are at restriction risk.
It is also important to understand that different species of sandfly are responsible for transmitting of different Leishmania parasites. Those that transmit the cutaneous illnes may be in Syria are less common in southern Europe so the chances of increasing transmitting of cutaneous leishmaniasis are small. Although Turkey might be at risk of increased incidence of the cutaneous illnes due to the flow of refugees from Syria, again it is worth highlighting that people with access to good nutrition and in generally good health are less vulnerable.
Concerns about imported germs, of course, are nothing new. Just last year, European airports were decorated with posters warning of Ebola, and those coming from Western africa were subjected to mandatory exams for signs of fever. But we should be careful of warnings of diseases spreading to developed countries, where healthcare systems and levels of public health are much more capable of preventing and treating infectious condition, even in the situation where those diseases could spread. Plus the wider accessibility of therapies in Europe makes an opportunity to provide healthcare to incoming sick refugees.
Given that leishmaniasis cannot be spread to colder countries and is limited by good healthcare, the specific suggestion that it could be be borne by refugees holds no force.
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